To become climate-resilient, Dominica seeks WB support on potential tax reforms to increase domestic revenue mobilization for NDC implementation and enhance budget and fiscal resiliency.
Climate Action Peer Exchange (CAPE) is a forum for peer learning, knowledge sharing, and mutual advisory support. It brings together ministers and senior technical specialists from finance ministries across the world, as well as World Bank staff and other international experts, to discuss the fiscal challenges involved in implementing the Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) established under the 2015 Paris Agreement. CAPE is a contribution of the WBG to the NDC Partnership.
- Coalition of Finance Ministers for Climate Action
- A Conversation with Nicholas Stern
- A conversation with Ingrid Gabriela Hoven
- A conversation with Pedro Taques, Governor of Mato Grosso, Brazil
- Fiscal Policy to Support NDCs and Mobilize Green Investment (High Level Plenary)
- Fiscal Policy to Support NDCs and Mobilize Green Investment (Q&As).
- Carbon Tax for Ethiopia (Part 1).
- Carbon Tax for Ethiopia (Part 2) .
- Carbon Tax for Ethiopia (Part 3).
- Carbon Tax for Ethiopia (Part 4).
- Carbon Tax for South Africa (Part 1).
- Carbon Tax for South Africa (Part 2).
- Carbon Tax for South Africa (Part 3).
- Carbon Tax for South Africa (Part 4).
CAPE has 6 key focus areas. Here you can explore various challenges and opportunities as well as good practices under each focus area.
This is the quarterly updated CAPE event calendar. You can easily access the event summary of previous events and registration page for upcoming events (except for close-door events).
The CAPE Knowledge Center is a curation of publications, tools, and online resources for CAPE focus areas. You can click on one of the focus areas below to filter for all relevant resources.
Dominica, a small-island state in the Caribbean, is among the countries most exposed to natural hazards. On September 18, 2017, Hurricane Maria hit Dominica with catastrophic effect. The Post-Disaster Needs Assessment concluded that Hurricane Maria resulted in total damages of US$931 million and losses of US$382 million, which amounts to 226 percent of 2016 GDP. The identified recovery needs for reconstruction and resilience interventions, incorporating the principle of resilience and ‘building back better’, amount to US$1.37 billion. Furthermore, Hurricane Maria struck while Dominica was still recovering from Hurricane Erika, which made landfall on August 27, 2015 and caused losses and damages of 97 percent of GDP.
In response, Prime Minister Roosevelt Skerrit has expressed “plans to make Dominica the first climate resilient nation in the world”. This includes through strengthening the resilience of Dominica’s physical infrastructure and natural environment, but also through building greater fiscal resilience, flexibility and ability to cope with climate events and shocks. On the fiscal resilience side, this includes: fiscal measures to better integrate sustainable development and climate adaptation strategies into development and budget planning processes; incorporating measures and instruments to better manage and cope with contingent and implicit liabilities arising from natural disaster events; fiscal and tax reforms that increase domestic revenues, but also achieve green growth objectives and help meet Dominica’s Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC); and reforms to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of social protection programs. The authorities have requested World Bank support on potential tax reforms to increase domestic revenue mobilization to further their NDC efforts and increase budget and fiscal resiliency. In response to this request, Climate Action Peer Exchange (CAPE) is funding the preparation of a report on how to reform existing fiscal policies on fuel, vehicles and durables and the existing environmental surcharge system; electricity and waste pricing, and fiscal policy for encouraging reforestation.
A new World Bank report argues that developing countries can make use of fiscal instruments for climate actions while raising well-being.
On Sept 25th, 2018, the Ministry of Finance Planning and Economic Development of Uganda held a workshop to pilot the Climate Change Budget Tagging system.
It is a cruel irony of climate change in the 21st century that the developing countries least responsible for the historical growth of cumulative global emissions are also generally those most vulnerable to its worst impacts. As the effects of hurricanes, landslides, coastal flooding, and rising sea levels become more deleterious and destructive, so too do the public finances of affected countries become more prone to regular instability and volatility. In extreme cases, economies may get caught in negative, self-reinforcing debt burdens. For small-island nations like St. Lucia, the stakes are indelibly high.
St. Lucia is perhaps already a harbinger of things to come, as extreme climate impacts in the country have already imposed average annual losses to GDP of 3.4 percent over the past several decades. At the same time, successive and rising fiscal deficits have contributed to a public debt totaling $3.2 billion. But St. Lucia has not thrown in the towel in the battle against climate change. It is a regional pioneer on climate policy, having been the first Caribbean country to sign an NDC (‘Nationally Determined Contribution’) under the Paris Agreement. It is also now the second small-island country, after Seychelles, to pilot a collaborative World Bank-IMF assessment report, which catalogs existing and future fiscal policies that could help the country achieve macroeconomic stability as it prepares for a changing climate.
The World Bank-IMF assessment report on St. Lucia is novel in several ways. First, it explicitly assigns a central policy-making role to finance ministries, which have often been unduly neglected in most climate discussions. This framing should become more common since it is inconceivable that governments in developing countries will fully implement and enhance their NDCs if the fiscal policy tools available to finance ministries are left underutilized. Second, the World Bank-IMF report goes beyond a narrow focus on policy design and asks the broader macroeconomic questions that fiscal policymakers confront: what does intensified climate change imply for St. Lucia’s already vulnerable macroeconomic outlook, and which climate policies and measures can minimize welfare losses while boosting fiscal preparedness and debt sustainability? Third, the report adopts a unique methodological approach, utilizing a robust, model-based diagnostic framework that is transferable to other countries. More specifically, the report’s integration of a macro-fiscal model with a geophysical, climate change module provides useful, multilevel insights on policy-climate interactions. With such tools at hand, climate-fiscal policymakers will be far better equipped for strategic and foresighted planning.
While St. Lucia’s mitigation policies are developed and finalized (with recommendations contained in the report), it is the country’s adaptation challenges that are perhaps most central to the concerns of the finance ministry. If left unchecked, climate impacts are sure to exacerbate preexisting macroeconomic woes. As a critical pioneering step, the government has begun to address these issues in its latest National Adaptation Plan (NAP), launched in April 2018.
With an economy mainly based on tourism (41.8% of GDP in 2017, with nearly half of all employment indirectly linked to tourism), St. Lucia’s attractive tropical climate can be both a blessing and a curse. The island is no stranger to natural disasters: since the devastation wrought by Hurricane Allen in 1980, St. Lucia has endured more than ten major storms, floods, and landslides that together generated losses and damages totaling over 120% of GDP. But as shown in model simulations presented in the IMF-World Bank report, under a scenario with worsening climate change, the average effects of a future natural disaster would reduce total GDP in St. Lucia by a further 43% (under IPCC scenario RCP8.5), relative to a scenario without intensified global warming. St. Lucia risks not only climate-induced declines in economic output in the coming decades but also potential losses to the tourism that generates much of that output.
St. Lucia’s risks of climate-related losses and damages are almost autocatalytic in their destructive potential, but the foresighted actions of the finance ministry and fiscal policymakers can be an essential stabilizing force. By finalizing several pieces of legislation to reduce emissions in energy and transport sectors, developing a financing strategy for mitigation and adaptation programs, and setting aside adaptation and relief funds annually for natural disaster preparedness, St. Lucia can carve a stable and sustainable financial path forward as it confronts a changing climate. Its remaining fiscal and debt priorities, detailed in the IMF-World Bank report, are a microcosm of the policy challenges faced by deputations of finance ministries around the world. St. Lucia’s pioneering climate efforts provide a repository of transferable lessons to finance ministries in other developing nations.